PISA 2012 Results: Ready to Learn. Volume III, Chapter 6

The role of families in shaping students’ engagement, drive, and self-beliefs (2013)

Both parents and environmental factors play a role in shaping children’s mathematical knowledge and dispositions. 

The home environment contributes to students’ engagement at school, their levels of drive and motivation and their beliefs about their abilities as mathematics learners. By the time children enter school, they differ greatly in the depth of their mathematical knowledge, so much so that by the age of four, there is a one-to-two-year gap between more and less mathematically advanced children.

Early differences in mathematical skills have long-lasting implications when children enter school and later on as they progress through formal education.


OECD. 2013. PISA 2012 Results: Ready to Learn Student’s Engagement, Drive and Self-Beliefs (Volume 3).